Iran (/ɪˈrɑːn/ , also /ɪˈræn/, also known as Persia (/ˈpɜːrʒə/), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia, the de facto Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan; to the north by the Caspian Sea; to the northeast by Turkmenistan; to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. With 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the world’s 17th-most-populous country. It is the only country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The country’s central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, make it of great geostrategic importance. Iran has diverse landscapes and geographical conditions.
Tehran is the country’s capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center.Iran is home to one of the world’s oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the 4th millennium BC.A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants of Iran are Shia Muslims and Persian is the official language. The largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris, Kurds and Lurs.Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. Iran is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the largest natural gas supply in the world and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. Iran’s rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world.
Higher Education in Iran
Universities and research institutes in Iran are open to all eligible Iranians and non-Iranian applicants. The admission of the Iranian applicants is done through a centralized state exam (Conquer) which is administered by the Organization for Assessment of the State Education (Sanjesh) in the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology.
The higher education system in Iran generally includes four prioritized educational degrees as follows:
- Technicians (2 years)
- Bachelor Program (4 years)
- Masters Program (2 years)
- PhD Program (4 years)